This site uses cookies to measure how you use the website so it can be updated and improved based on your needs and also uses cookies to help remember the notifications you’ve seen, like this one, so that we don’t show them to you again. If you could also tell us a little bit about yourself, this information will help us understand how we can support you better and make this site even easier for you to use and navigate.

Diet intervention and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in amnestic mild cognitive impairment


Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L., Green, Pattie S., Montine, Thomas J., VanFossen, Brian, Baker, Laura D., Watson, G. Stennis, Bonner, Laura M., Callaghan, Maureen, Leverenz, James B., Walter, Brooke K., Tsai, Elaine, Plymate, Stephen R., Postupna, Nadia, Wilkinson, Charles W., Zhang, Jing, Lampe, Johanna, Kahn, Steven E., Craft, Suzanne


Archives Of Neurology, Volume: 68, No.: 6, Pages.: 743-752

Year of Publication



Objective: To compare the effects of a 4-week high-saturated fat/high-glycemic index (HIGH) diet with a low-saturated fat/low-glycemic index (LOW) diet on insulin and lipid metabolism, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of Alzheimer disease, and cognition for healthy adults and adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).; Design: Randomized controlled trial.; Setting: Veterans Affairs Medical Center clinical research unit.; Participants: Forty-nine older adults (20 healthy adults with a mean [SD] age of 69.3 [7.4] years and 29 adults with aMCI with a mean [SD] age of 67.6 [6.8] years).; Intervention: Participants received the HIGH diet (fat, 45% [saturated fat, > 25%]; carbohydrates, 35%-40% [glycemic index, > 70]; and protein, 15%-20%) or the LOW diet (fat, 25%; [saturated fat, < 7%]; carbohydrates, 55%-60% [glycemic index, < 55]; and protein, 15%-20%) for 4 weeks. Cognitive tests, an oral glucose tolerance test, and lumbar puncture were conducted at baseline and during the fourth week of the diet.; Main Outcome Measures: The CSF concentrations of β-amyloid (Aβ42 and Aβ40), tau protein, insulin, F2-isoprostanes, and apolipoprotein E, plasma lipids and insulin, and measures of cognition.; Results: For the aMCI group, the LOW diet increased CSF Aβ42 concentrations, contrary to the pathologic pattern of lowered CSF Aβ42 typically observed in Alzheimer disease. The LOW diet had the opposite effect for healthy adults, ie, decreasing CSF Aβ42, whereas the HIGH diet increased CSF Aβ42. The CSF apolipoprotein E concentration was increased by the LOW diet and decreased by the HIGH diet for both groups. For the aMCI group, the CSF insulin concentration increased with the LOW diet, but the HIGH diet lowered the CSF insulin concentration for healthy adults. The HIGH diet increased and the LOW diet decreased plasma lipids, insulin, and CSF F2-isoprostane concentrations. Delayed visual memory improved for both groups after completion of 4 weeks of the LOW diet.; Conclusion: Our results suggest that diet may be a powerful environmental factor that modulates Alzheimer disease risk through its effects on central nervous system concentrations of Aβ42, lipoproteins, oxidative stress, and insulin.;

Bibtex Citation

@article{Bayer_Carter_2011, doi = {10.1001/archneurol.2011.125}, url = {}, year = 2011, month = {jun}, publisher = {American Medical Association ({AMA})}, volume = {68}, number = {6}, author = {Jennifer L. Bayer-Carter and Pattie S. Green and Thomas J. Montine and Brian VanFossen and Laura D. Baker and G. Stennis Watson and Laura M. Bonner and Maureen Callaghan and James B. Leverenz and Brooke K. Walter and Elaine Tsai and Stephen R. Plymate and Nadia Postupna and Charles W. Wilkinson and Jing Zhang and Johanna Lampe and Steven E. Kahn and Suzanne Craft}, title = {Diet Intervention and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment}, journal = {Arch Neurol} }


a, aged, alzheimer disease, amnesia, and, biological markers, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, cognition disorders, diet, diet therapy, dietary carbohydrates, dietary fats unsaturated, fathighglycemic, fatlowglycemic, female, food formulated, high, highsaturated, humans, index, insulin, lipid, low, lowsaturated, male, metabolism, middle aged, peptide fragments, pharmacology, severity of illness index, standards, therapeutic use

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Types of Study

Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes

Cognition, Other


Specialist Dementia Centre Care / Memory Clinic

Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment, Risk Factor Modification

Risk Factor Modifications

General population health promotion

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions