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The Verbal Clock Test: preliminary validation of a brief, vision- and motor-free measure of executive function in a clinical sample


Cercy, Steven P.


The Clinical Neuropsychologist, Volume: 26, No.: 8, Pages.: 1312-1341

Year of Publication



Assessment of executive functions is frequently time-consuming, and although some brief measures exist they are subject to problems associated with limited education, culture of origin, impairments of motor or visual systems, and tolerability. Preliminary validation of a newly developed measure, the Verbal Clock Test (VCT), was conducted in a clinical sample of 294 patients who underwent neuropsychological evaluation. The evidence supports the interpretation of VCT scores as demonstrating construct validity, criterion-related validity, and sound internal consistency. Performance does not vary substantially with gender or mood, and variability associated with age, education, and ethnicity is modest. Confounding effects of motor and visual impairments are eliminated. Initial data suggest the VCT represents a reasonable method of assessing abstract reasoning and concept formation when clinical circumstances limit the use of currently available measures.;

Bibtex Citation

@article{Cercy_2012, doi = {10.1080/13854046.2012.725100}, url = {}, year = 2012, month = {nov}, publisher = {Informa {UK} Limited}, volume = {26}, number = {8}, pages = {1312--1341}, author = {Steven P. Cercy}, title = {The Verbal Clock Test: Preliminary Validation of a Brief, Vision- and Motor-Free Measure of Executive Function in a Clinical Sample}, journal = {The Clinical Neuropsychologist} }


aged, cognition disorders, concept formation, dementia, diagnosis, executive function, female, humans, instrumentation, male, middle aged, mild cognitive impairment, neuropsychological tests, physiology, psychometrics, roc curve, sensitivity and specificity, standards

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Dementia (general / unspecified), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Types of Study

Cohort Study

Type of Interventions

Diagnostic Target Identification

Diagnostic Targets

Cognition testing (inc. task driven tests such as clock drawing)