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Preserving Identity and Planning for Advance Care (PIPAC): preliminary outcomes from a patient-centered intervention for individuals with mild dementia


Hilgeman, Michelle M., Allen, Rebecca S., Snow, A. Lynn, Durkin, Daniel W., DeCoster, Jamie, Burgio, Louis D.


Aging & Mental Health, Volume: 18, No.: 4, Pages.: 411-424

Year of Publication



Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to conduct limited-efficacy testing of the newly developed Preserving Identity and Planning for Advance Care (PIPAC) intervention on self-reported and proxy-reported emotional and health-related outcomes of individuals in the early stages of dementia.; Method: A two-group comparison design was implemented. Blocked randomization was used to assign individuals with mild dementia and a family contact to either (1) the four-session, multi-component intervention group focused on reminiscence and future planning or (2) the minimal support phone contact comparison group. Of the 19 enrolled dyads, 18completed post-treatment assessments (i.e. 10 intervention and 8 comparison group). Individuals with dementia were M=82.8 (SD=6.46) years old; 31.6% were men and 68.4% were women. Participants were predominantly white/Caucasian (n=18, 94.7%) with one black/African-American (5.3%).; Results: Analyses of covariance controlling for baseline differences revealed clinically meaningful differences (with medium to large effect sizes) between groups at post-treatment for depressive symptoms, quality of life, health-related quality of life indicators, and decisional conflict. Individuals in the intervention group were also observed to exhibit higher levels of coping. Feasibility data collected from participants and interventionists were encouraging.; Conclusion: Emotion-focused, patient-centered interventions like PIPAC hold promise for advancing treatment options in the early and mild stages of dementia. A full-scale, randomized clinical trial of this intervention is warranted to determine both short-term and long-term impacts on clinical outcomes including improved depressive symptomatology, quality of life, and health-related factors that impact daily functioning in social environments.;

Bibtex Citation

@article{Hilgeman_2013, doi = {10.1080/13607863.2013.868403}, url = {}, year = 2013, month = {dec}, publisher = {Informa {UK} Limited}, volume = {18}, number = {4}, pages = {411--424}, author = {Michelle M. Hilgeman and Rebecca S. Allen and A. Lynn Snow and Daniel W. Durkin and Jamie DeCoster and LouisD. Burgio}, title = {Preserving Identity and Planning for Advance Care ({PIPAC}): preliminary outcomes from a patient-centered intervention for individuals with mild dementia}, journal = {Aging {&} Mental Health} }


adaptation psychological, advance, advance care planning, aged, aged, 80 and over, care, dementia, depression, feasibility studies, female, humans, male, methods, physiology, pilot projects, planning, psychology, psychotherapy, quality of life, self concept, severity of illness index, social identification, social support, stress, psychological, therapy, treatment outcome

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Dementia (general / unspecified)

Types of Study

Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes

Depression and Anxiety, Quality of Life of Person With Dementia

Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

Other, Reminiscence and Anxiety Therapies