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Foot massage versus quiet presence on agitation and mood in people with dementia: A randomised controlled trial


Moyle, Wendy, Cooke, Marie Louise, Beattie, Elizabeth, Shum, David H.K., O’Dwyer, Siobhan T., Barrett, Sue


International Journal of Nursing Studies, Volume: 51, No.: 6, Pages.: 856-864

Year of Publication



Background: There is increasing interest in using complementary and alternative treatments to manage behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia such as agitation, aggression and depressed mood. Objective: To compare the effect of foot massage (intervention) and quiet presence (control) on agitation and mood in people with dementia. Design: A randomised controlled trial using a within-subjects, crossover design. Settings: Five long-term care facilities in Brisbane, Australia. The primary outcome was the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the secondary outcome was the Observed Emotion Rating Scale (OERS). The screening and data collection research assistants, families, and care staff were blinded to participant allocation. Participants: Participants of the study were 55 long-term care residents aged 74–103 years (mean age 86.5), with moderate to severe dementia and a history of agitated behaviour according to the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale. A computer-program randomised participants to 10-min foot massage (intervention) or quiet presence (control), every weekday for 3 weeks. Results: A carry-over effect was identified in the data, and so the data was treated as a parallel groups RCT. The mean total CMAI increased in both groups (reflecting an increase in agitation) with this increase greater in the quiet presence group than the foot massage group (p = 0.03). There was a trend towards a difference on OERS General Alertness, with a positive change in alertness for participants in the foot massage group (indicating reduced alertness) and a negative change for participants in the quiet presence group (indicating increased alertness) (F(1,51) = 3.88, p = 0.05, partial ή² = 0.07). Conclusions: The findings highlight the need for further research on the specific conditions under which massage might promote relaxation and improve mood for people with dementia. The unfamiliar research assistants and variations in usual activity may have contributed to the increase in agitation and this needs further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Bibtex Citation

@article{Moyle_2014, doi = {10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.10.019}, url = {}, year = 2014, month = {jun}, publisher = {Elsevier {BV}}, volume = {51}, number = {6}, pages = {856--864}, author = {Wendy Moyle and Marie Louise Cooke and Elizabeth Beattie and David H.K. Shum and Siobhan T. O'Dwyer and Sue Barrett}, title = {Foot massage versus quiet presence on agitation and mood in people with dementia: A randomised controlled trial}, journal = {International Journal of Nursing Studies} }


agitation, alternative medicine, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, complementary therapies, dementia, foot, intervention, major depression, masage, massage, presence

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Dementia (general / unspecified)

Types of Study

Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes

Behaviour, Depression and Anxiety


Long Term Residential Care without medically trained staff

Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

Complementary therapies