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Decreased activation along the dorsal visual pathway after a 3-month treatment with galantamine in mild Alzheimer disease: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study


Bokde, Arun L. W., Karmann, Michaela, Teipel, Stefan J., Born, Christine, Lieb, Martin, Reiser, Maximilian F., Möller, Hans-Jürgen, Hampel, Harald


Journal Of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Volume: 29, No.: 2, Pages.: 147-156

Year of Publication



Visual perception has been shown to be altered in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, and it is associated with decreased cognitive function. Galantamine is an active cholinergic agent, which has been shown to lead to improved cognition in mild to moderate AD patients. This study examined brain activation in a group of mild AD patients after a 3-month open-label treatment with galantamine. The objective was to examine the changes in brain activation due to treatment. There were 2 tasks to visual perception. The first task was a face-matching task to test the activation along the ventral visual pathway, and the second task was a location-matching task to test neuronal function along the dorsal pathway. Brain activation was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were 5 mild AD patients in the study. There were no differences in the task performance and in the cognitive scores of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease battery before and after treatment. In the location-matching task, we found a statistically significant decrease in activation along the dorsal visual pathway after galantamine treatment. A previous study found that AD patients had higher activation in the location-matching task compared with healthy controls. There were no differences in activation for the face-matching task after treatment. Our data indicate that treatment with galantamine leads to more efficient visual processing of stimuli or changes the compensatory mechanism in the AD patients. A visual perception task recruiting the dorsal visual system may be useful as a biomarker of treatment effects.;

Bibtex Citation

@article{Bokde_2009, doi = {10.1097/jcp.0b013e31819a8f2e}, url = {}, year = 2009, month = {apr}, publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)}, volume = {29}, number = {2}, pages = {147--156}, author = {Arun L.W. Bokde and Michaela Karmann and Stefan J. Teipel and Christine Born and Martin Lieb and Maximilian F. Reiser and Hans-Jürgen Möller and Harald Hampel}, title = {Decreased Activation Along the Dorsal Visual Pathway After a 3-Month Treatment With Galantamine in Mild Alzheimer Disease}, journal = {Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology} }


aged, alzheimer disease, brain mapping, cholinesterase inhibitors, cognition disorders, drug effects, drug therapy, etiology, face, galantamine, humans, magnetic resonance imaging, methods, neuropsychological tests, pharmacology, physiopathology, recognition psychology, therapeutic use, visual perception

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Alzheimer’s Disease

Types of Study

Cohort Study

Type of Outcomes


Type of Interventions

Pharmaceutical Interventions

Pharmaceutical Interventions

Anti-Alzheimer medications, e.g.: donezepil, galantamine, rivastigmine, memantime