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Using spaced retrieval and Montessori-based activities in improving eating ability for residents with dementia


Lin, Li-Chan, Huang, Ya-Ju, Su, Su-Gen, Watson, Roger, Tsai, Belina W. J., Wu, Shiao-Chi


International Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry, Volume: 25, No.: 10, Pages.: 953-959

Year of Publication



Objectives: To construct a training protocol for spaced retrieval (SR) and to investigate the effectiveness of SR and Montessori-based activities in decreasing eating difficulty in older residents with dementia.; Methods: A single evaluator, blind, and randomized control trial was used. Eighty-five residents with dementia were chosen from three special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. To avoid any confounding of subjects, the three institutions were randomized into three groups: spaced retrieval, Montessori-based activities, and a control group. The invention consisted of three 30-40 min sessions per week, for 8 weeks.; Results: After receiving the intervention, the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia (EdFED) scores and assisted feeding scores for the SR and Montessori-based activity groups were significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the frequencies of physical assistance and verbal assistance for the Montessori-based activity group after intervention were significantly higher than that of the control group, which suggests that residents who received Montessori-based activity need more physical and verbal assistance during mealtimes. In terms of the effects of nutritional status after intervention, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in the SR group was significantly higher than that of the control group.; Conclusion: This study confirms the efficacy of SR and Montessori-based activities for eating difficulty and eating ability. A longitudinal study to follow the long-term effects of SR and Montessori-based activities on eating ability and nutritional status is recommended.; Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bibtex Citation

@article{Lin_2010, doi = {10.1002/gps.2433}, url = {}, year = 2010, month = {jan}, publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell}, volume = {25}, number = {10}, pages = {953--959}, author = {Li-Chan Lin and Ya-Ju Huang and Su-Gen Su and Roger Watson and Belina W-J. Tsai and Shiao-Chi Wu}, title = {Using spaced retrieval and Montessori-based activities in improving eating ability for residents with dementia}, journal = {Int. J. Geriat. Psychiatry} }


activities, aged, aged, 80 and over, and, based, complications, dementia, eating, etiology, feeding, female, humans, male, mental recall, methods, montessori, nutritional status, physiology, psychomotor disorders, psychomotor performance, psychotherapy, retention psychology, retrieval, spaced, taiwan, therapy, time factors

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Dementia (general / unspecified)

Types of Study

Case Control Study

Type of Outcomes



Nursing Homes

Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions