This site uses cookies to measure how you use the website so it can be updated and improved based on your needs and also uses cookies to help remember the notifications you’ve seen, like this one, so that we don’t show them to you again. If you could also tell us a little bit about yourself, this information will help us understand how we can support you better and make this site even easier for you to use and navigate.

Treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer-type dementia with Yokukansan in clinical practice


Hayashi, Yoshihito, Ishida, Yasushi, Inoue, Teruhiko, Udagawa, Mitsutaka, Takeuchi, Kouzou, Yoshimuta, Hirofumi, Kiue, Kouichirou, Ninomiya, Yoshimasa, Kawano, Jiro, Sameshima, Tetsuro, Kawahara, Takashi, Goto, Isamu, Shudo, Kenji, Kurayama, Shigeki, Nakamura, Jungo, Okahara, Kazunori, Mitsuyama, Yoshio


Progress In Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, Volume: 34, No.: 3, Pages.: 541-545

Year of Publication



The efficacy and safety of the kampo medicine Yokukansan (YKS, TJ-54) in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) were investigated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in an open-label study. This study included 26 patients who had been diagnosed as having AD and were not treated with donepezil hydrochloride. These patients were administered YKS (7.5g/day) for four weeks to investigate the changes in neuropsychological test results and care burden in the period from the start to completion of the study treatment. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) was used for evaluation of BPSD, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for evaluation of cognitive functions, the Zarit burden interview for evaluation of the caregiver’s burden, Disability Assessment of Dementia (DAD) for evaluation of activities of daily living (ADL) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) for evaluation of the caregiver’s depression. No significant change was seen in MMSE and DAD after four weeks of treatment, but the mean NPI total score decreased significantly. Furthermore, among the NPI subscales, a statistically significant decrease in score was not seen, however, a clinically significant decrease was seen in terms of hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, irritability or abnormal behavior. No significant changes were seen in caregiver’s burden after four weeks of treatment. No serious adverse reactions to YKS were observed. The results of this study suggested that YKS may be an effective and well-tolerated drug in the treatment of BPSD in AD patients.; Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Bibtex Citation

@article{Hayashi_2010, doi = {10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.02.016}, url = {}, year = 2010, month = {apr}, publisher = {Elsevier {BV}}, volume = {34}, number = {3}, pages = {541--545}, author = {Yoshihito Hayashi and Yasushi Ishida and Teruhiko Inoue and Mitsutaka Udagawa and Kouzou Takeuchi and Hirofumi Yoshimuta and Kouichirou Kiue and Yoshimasa Ninomiya and Jiro Kawano and Tetsuro Sameshima and Takashi Kawahara and Isamu Goto and Kenji Shudo and Shigeki Kurayama and Jungo Nakamura and Kazunori Okahara and Yoshio Mitsuyama}, title = {Treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer-type dementia with Yokukansan in clinical practice}, journal = {Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry} }


activities of daily living, aged, aged, 80 and over, alzheimer disease, behavioral symptoms, complications, drug therapy, drugs chinese herbal, etiology, female, humans, indans, male, mental status schedule, neuropsychological tests, nootropic agents, piperidines, psychology, statistics nonparametric, therapeutic use, yokukansan

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Alzheimer’s Disease

Types of Study

Before and After Study

Type of Outcomes

ADLs/IADLs, Behaviour, Carer Burden (instruments measuring burden), Carers’ Mental Health, Cognition

Type of Interventions

Pharmaceutical Interventions

Pharmaceutical Interventions

Herbal remedies, vitamins, dietary supplements