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The PACE study: a randomized clinical trial of cognitive activity strategy training for older people with mild cognitive impairment


Vidovich, Mandy R., Lautenschlager, Nicola T., Flicker, Leon, Clare, Linda, McCaul, Kieran, Almeida, Osvaldo P.


The American Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry: Official Journal Of The American Association For Geriatric Psychiatry, Volume: 23, No.: 4, Pages.: 360-372

Year of Publication



Objective: The role of cognition-focused interventions in reducing cognitive decline in older people remains uncertain. This study aimed to clarify whether a group cognitive activity (CA) strategy-training program would decrease the 2-year rate of cognitive decline of people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).; Design: Randomized controlled trial.; Setting: One study site.; Participants: 160 older adults with MCI ≥65 years of age (mean: 75, SD: 5.8).; Intervention: Five-week CA strategy training or a control nonspecific educational program. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in the total score on the Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Revised (CAMCOG-R). Secondary outcomes of interest included changes in memory, attention, executive functions, mood, and quality of life. Endpoints were collected 10, 52, and 104 weeks post baseline.; Results: Intention to treat analysis identified no significant difference in CAMCOG-R scores over time between the two groups (mean difference: -0.36, 95% CI: -1.02,0.29) or across secondary outcome measures. The exceptions were better performance of the CA group on immediate attention (Digit Span Forwards, adjusted mean difference: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01,0.30) and better quality of life (adjusted mean difference: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.10,1.04) compared with controls.; Conclusion: The devised program of CA did not improve general cognitive performance of older adults with MCI over a period of 2 years. Although favorable, the beneficial effects of the intervention on attention and quality of life were small, and of uncertain significance.; Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Bibtex Citation

@article{Vidovich_2015, doi = {10.1016/j.jagp.2014.04.002}, url = {}, year = 2015, month = {apr}, publisher = {Elsevier {BV}}, volume = {23}, number = {4}, pages = {360--372}, author = {Mandy R. Vidovich and Nicola T. Lautenschlager and Leon Flicker and Linda Clare and Kieran McCaul and Osvaldo P. Almeida}, title = {The {PACE} Study: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Activity Strategy Training for Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment}, journal = {The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry} }


affect, aged, attention, cognition, cognitive therapy, dementia, executive function, female, humans, intervention, male, memory, mild cognitive impairment, neuropsychological tests, neuropsychology, prevention, psychology, quality of life, singleblind method, therapy, treatment outcome

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Types of Study

Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes

Behaviour, Cognition, Quality of Life of Person With Dementia

Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

Adult safeguarding and abuse detection/prevention