This site uses cookies to measure how you use the website so it can be updated and improved based on your needs and also uses cookies to help remember the notifications you’ve seen, like this one, so that we don’t show them to you again. If you could also tell us a little bit about yourself, this information will help us understand how we can support you better and make this site even easier for you to use and navigate.

Persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer’s disease learn to use urine alarms and prompts to avoid large urinary accidents


Lancioni, Giulio E., Singh, Nirbhay N., O’Reilly, Mark F., Sigafoos, Jeff, Bosco, Andrea, Zonno, Nadia, Badagliacca, Francesco


Research In Developmental Disabilities, Volume: 32, No.: 5, Pages.: 1998-2004

Year of Publication



This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer’s disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers’ prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to stop urinating and accompany him or her to the toilet to void. After urination, the caregiver provided the patient positive social attention. The results of the intervention showed that the use of the alarm system and caregivers’ prompts was effective in helping the three patients reduce their large urinary accidents to zero or near zero levels. Self-initiated toileting, which was minimal during baseline, accounted for nearly 35%, 50% and 75% of the patients’ toileting occasions during the intervention. Fifty-two caregivers, who participated in a social validation assessment of toileting approaches relying on alarm systems or timed toileting, seemed to find the former preferable for the patients, for the context, as well as for themselves. The implications of the findings for daily programs of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias are discussed.; Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bibtex Citation

@article{Lancioni_2011, doi = {10.1016/j.ridd.2011.04.011}, url = {}, year = 2011, month = {sep}, publisher = {Elsevier {BV}}, volume = {32}, number = {5}, pages = {1998--2004}, author = {Giulio E. Lancioni and Nirbhay N. Singh and Mark F. O'Reilly and Jeff Sigafoos and Andrea Bosco and Nadia Zonno and Francesco Badagliacca}, title = {Persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer{textquotesingle}s disease learn to use urine alarms and prompts to avoid large urinary accidents}, journal = {Research in Developmental Disabilities} }


accidents, aged, 80 and over, alarms, alzheimer disease, and, behavior therapy, clinical alarms, female, humans, initiated, learning, male, methods, prevention & control, prompts, rehabilitation, self, self efficacy, sensory aids, severity of illness index, toilet training, toileting, urinary, urinary incontinence, urine

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Alzheimer’s Disease

Types of Study

Before and After Study

Type of Outcomes


Type of Interventions

Technology (telephone, telecare, telehealth, robots, GPS), Treatment/prevention of co-morbidities or additional risks