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Effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on functional balance: preplanned subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities


Littbrand, Håkan, Carlsson, Maine, Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor, Lindelöf, Nina, Håglin, Lena, Gustafson, Yngve, Rosendahl, Erik


Journal Of The American Geriatrics Society, Volume: 59, No.: 7, Pages.: 1274-1282

Year of Publication



Objectives: To evaluate whether age, sex, depression, dementia disorder, nutritional status, or level of functional balance capacity influences the effect of a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program on functional balance.; Design: Preplanned subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial.; Setting: Nine residential care facilities.; Participants: One hundred ninety-one people aged 65 to 100 dependent in activities of daily living and with Mini-Mental State Examination scores of 10 or greater.; Intervention: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program or a control activity, each comprising 29 sessions over 3 months.; Measurements: Functional balance capacity was assessed blindly using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The BBS consists of 14 tasks, common in everyday life, such as standing up from sitting and, while standing, reaching forward or turning 360°. Interactions between allocation to activity group and each subgroup were evaluated according to the intention-to-treat principle.; Results: The subgroup analyses revealed no statistically significant interaction for age, sex, depression, dementia disorder, nutritional status, or level of functional balance capacity at 3 (P=.65, .65, .51, .78, .09, .67, respectively) or 6 (P=.69, .62, .20, .94, .48, .85, respectively) months. In addition, at 3 and 6 months there was no significant interaction for cognitive level (P=.28, .47, respectively) or number of depressive symptoms (P=.85, .49, respectively).; Conclusion: Older age, female sex, depression, mild to moderate dementia syndrome, malnutrition, and severe physical impairment do not seem to have a negative effect on functional balance from a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program. Consequently, people with these characteristics in residential care facilities should not be excluded from offers of rehabilitation including high-intensity exercises.; © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

Bibtex Citation

@article{Littbrand_2011, doi = {10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03484.x}, url = {}, year = 2011, month = {jun}, publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell}, volume = {59}, number = {7}, pages = {1274--1282}, author = {H{aa}kan Littbrand and Maine Carlsson and Lillemor Lundin-Olsson and Nina Lindelöf and Lena H{aa}glin and Yngve Gustafson and Erik Rosendahl}, title = {Effect of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Functional Balance: Preplanned Subgroup Analyses of a Randomized Controlled Trial in Residential Care Facilities}, journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society} }


age factors, aged, aged, 80 and over, balance, bearing, capacity, complications, dementia, depression, exercise, female, functional, humans, male, nutritional status, physiology, postural balance, residential facilities, resistance training, sex factors

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Dementia (general / unspecified)

Types of Study

Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes

ADLs/IADLs, Other


Nursing Homes

Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

Exercise (inc. dancing)