This site uses cookies to measure how you use the website so it can be updated and improved based on your needs and also uses cookies to help remember the notifications you’ve seen, like this one, so that we don’t show them to you again. If you could also tell us a little bit about yourself, this information will help us understand how we can support you better and make this site even easier for you to use and navigate.

A subtest of the MMSE as a valid test of episodic memory? Comparison with the Free and Cued Reminding Test


Carcaillon, Laure, Amieva, Hélène, Auriacombe, Sophie, Helmer, Catherine, Dartigues, Jean-François


Dementia And Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, Volume: 27, No.: 5, Pages.: 429-438

Year of Publication



Background/aims: Episodic memory impairment is known to be the core of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia syndrome and one of the earliest domains to decline. However, episodic memory tests are long and expensive.; Methods: In a sample of the French Three-City Study (n = 1,516), we aimed at validating a subtest of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) specifically measuring episodic memory. We focused on the correlation between 7 MMSE subscores and 4 scores of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) evaluating episodic memory. We performed linear regressions and principal component analyses to identify which MMSE subscores were better correlated with the FCSRT scores. Thereafter, we conducted validation analyses on the whole sample (n = 9,077).; Results: We found that subscores for orientation to time and the 3-word recall task were well correlated with FCSRT scores. The summation of these 2 subscores was more strongly associated with dementia and AD than the FCSRT scores and the total MMSE score.; Conclusion: Orientation to time and the 3-word recall task might provide a good measure of episodic memory. Making the evaluation of episodic memory faster and cheaper, this finding can be of direct interest for practitioners and epidemiologists.;

Bibtex Citation

@article{Carcaillon_2009, doi = {10.1159/000214632}, url = {}, year = 2009, publisher = {S. Karger {AG}}, volume = {27}, number = {5}, pages = {429--438}, author = {Laure Carcaillon and H{&}eacute$mathsemicolon$l{&}egrave$mathsemicolon$ne Amieva and Sophie Auriacombe and Catherine Helmer and Jean-Fran{&}ccedil$mathsemicolon$ois Dartigues}, title = {A Subtest of the {MMSE} as a Valid Test of Episodic Memory? Comparison with the Free and Cued Reminding Test}, journal = {Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders} }


aged, alzheimer disease, cues, data interpretation statistical, diagnosis, education, female, humans, linear models, male, memory, memory disorders, neuropsychological tests, physiology, prospective studies, psychology, psychomotor performance, reproducibility of results, risk factors

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Alzheimer’s Disease

Types of Study

Cohort Study

Type of Outcomes


Type of Interventions

Diagnostic Target Identification

Diagnostic Targets

Cognition testing (inc. task driven tests such as clock drawing)