This site uses cookies to measure how you use the website so it can be updated and improved based on your needs and also uses cookies to help remember the notifications you’ve seen, like this one, so that we don’t show them to you again. If you could also tell us a little bit about yourself, this information will help us understand how we can support you better and make this site even easier for you to use and navigate.

Reliability and validity of the Norwegian version of the Brief Agitation Rating Scale (BARS) in dementia


Sommer, Oskar H., Engedal, Knut


Aging & Mental Health, Volume: 15, No.: 2, Pages.: 252-258

Year of Publication



Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability and validity of the Norwegian Brief Agitation Rating Scale (BARS), a short form of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) assessing the frequency of agitation in dementia.; Methods: We investigated the internal consistency, test-retest reliability and the validity of BARS. In the validity study, we compared the BARS scores with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory–Nursing Home Version subscale Agitation/Aggression (NPI-NH/AA) and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia subscale Agitation (CSDD/A).; Results: In the reliability study, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.76; the test-retest reliability of the BARS showed a Spearman’s rho of 0.64, but this increased to 0.86 when we deleted the item ‘complaining’. In the validation study, the BARS score correlated with the NPI-NH/AA and the CSDD/A scores, Spearman’s rho 0.55 and 0.52, respectively. These correlations changed when controlling for the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale stages. The highest correlations between the BARS and the NPI-NH/AA and the BARS and the CSDD/A were found among patients with CDR score 2.; Conclusions: The study indicates that the Norwegian version of BARS is a reliable and valid instrument to test agitation in dementia, but a version without the item ‘complaining’ would be better.;

Bibtex Citation

@article{Sommer_2011, doi = {10.1080/13607863.2010.519318}, url = {}, year = 2011, month = {mar}, publisher = {Informa {UK} Limited}, volume = {15}, number = {2}, pages = {252--258}, author = {Oskar H. Sommer and Knut Engedal}, title = {Reliability and validity of the Norwegian version of the Brief Agitation Rating Scale ({BARS}) in dementia}, journal = {Aging {&} Mental Health} }


aged, aged, 80 and over, alzheimer disease, development, diagnosis, female, homes for the aged, humans, instrument, male, norway, nursing, nursing assessment, nursing homes, psychology, psychometrics, psychomotor agitation, reproducibility of results, rural population, statistics & numerical data, translating

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Dementia (general / unspecified)

Types of Study

Instrument development and testing (cross walking of measures, etc.)

Type of Outcomes



Nursing Homes

Type of Interventions