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Reduced TNF-α and increased IGF-I levels in the serum of Alzheimer’s disease patients treated with the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin


Alvarez, X. Anton, Sampedro, Carolina, Cacabelos, Ramon, Linares, Carlos, Aleixandre, Manuel, García-Fantini, Manuel, Moessler, Herbert


The International Journal Of Neuropsychopharmacology / Official Scientific Journal Of The Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP), Volume: 12, No.: 7, Pages.: 867-872

Year of Publication



According to current scientific knowledge, excess tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and low insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are pathogenic-risk factors that constitute therapeutic targets for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Changes in serum TNF-α, total and dissociable IGF-I levels were determined by ELISA in 207 AD patients completing a 24-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of the neurotrophic compound Cerebrolysin (Cere: 10, 30 or 60 ml for 12 wk). At week 24, Cere reduced TNF-α and enhanced dissociable IGF-I with respect to placebo in a dose-related manner. TNF-α decreased in parallel with behavioural disturbances. Increases in total IGF-I were induced by 60 ml Cere and correlated significantly with improvements in global function, disabilities and behaviour in late-onset AD patients. These results showing for the first time the opposite influence of one anti-dementia treatment on serum TNF-α and IGF-I suggest the contribution of both factors to the clinical effects of Cere, and probably other drugs.;

Bibtex Citation

@article{Anton_Alvarez_2009, doi = {10.1017/s1461145709990101}, url = {}, year = 2009, month = {jun}, publisher = {Oxford University Press ({OUP})}, volume = {12}, number = {07}, pages = {867}, author = {X. Anton Alvarez and Carolina Sampedro and Ramon Cacabelos and Carlos Linares and Manuel Aleixandre and Manuel Garc{'{i}}a-Fantini and Herbert Moessler}, title = {Reduced {TNF}-$upalpha$ and increased {IGF}-I levels in the serum of Alzheimer{textquotesingle}s disease patients treated with the neurotrophic agent Cerebrolysin}, journal = {The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology} }


aged, aged, 80 and over, alzheimer disease, amino acids, biological markers, blood, cerebrolysin, cognition, diagnosis, disability evaluation, double-blind method, downregulation, drug effects, drug therapy, female, humans, insulinlike growth factor i, male, metabolism, middle aged, neuropsychological tests, nootropic agents, placebo effect, psychology, severity of illness index, spain, therapeutic use, time factors, treatment outcome, tumor necrosis factoralpha, upregulation

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Alzheimer’s Disease

Types of Study

Non randomised controlled trial, Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes

Behaviour, Physical Health

Type of Interventions

Pharmaceutical Interventions

Pharmaceutical Interventions