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Evaluation of a virtual reality-based memory training programme for Hong Kong Chinese older adults with questionable dementia: a pilot study


Man, David W. K., Chung, Jenny C. C., Lee, Grace Y. Y.


International Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry, Volume: 27, No.: 5, Pages.: 513-520

Year of Publication



Background: Older adults with questionable dementia are at risk of progressing to dementia, and early intervention is considered important. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a virtual reality (VR)-based memory training for older adults with questionable dementia.; Methods: A pre-test and post-test design was adopted. Twenty and 24 older adults with questionable dementia were randomly assigned to a VR-based and a therapist-led memory training group, respectively. Primary outcome measures included the Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire and Fuld Object Memory Evaluation.; Results: Both groups demonstrated positive training effects, with the VR group showing greater improvement in objective memory performance and the non-VR group showing better subjective memory subtest results in the Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire.; Conclusion: The use of VR seems to be acceptable for older adults with questionable dementia. Further study on the effect of educational background and memory training modality (visual, auditory) is warranted.; Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bibtex Citation

@article{Man_2011, doi = {10.1002/gps.2746}, url = {}, year = 2011, month = {jun}, publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell}, volume = {27}, number = {5}, pages = {513--520}, author = {David W. K. Man and Jenny C. C. Chung and Grace Y. Y. Lee}, title = {Evaluation of a virtual reality-based memory training programme for Hong Kong Chinese older adults with questionable dementia: a pilot study}, journal = {Int J Geriatr Psychiatry} }


aged, aged, 80 and over, analysis of variance, cognition disorders, cognitive therapy, complications, dementia, etiology, female, hong kong, humans, male, memory, methods, pilot projects, questionnaires, reality, therapy, training, virtual

Countries of Study

Hong Kong

Types of Dementia

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Types of Study

Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes


Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment, Technology (telephone, telecare, telehealth, robots, GPS)

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

Adult safeguarding and abuse detection/prevention


Cognitive Stimulation Related Technology