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Effects of distraction and pictorial illustration on memory for countries in older adults with probable Alzheimer’s disease


Boudreaux, Emily O., Cherry, Katie E., Elliott, Emily M., Hicks, Jason L.


Experimental Aging Research, Volume: 37, No.: 3, Pages.: 293-309

Year of Publication



Eight participants with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were trained to recall names of countries using the spaced-retrieval memory intervention. Six training sessions were administered on alternate days over a 2-week period. Half of the participants studied a target country alone and the other half studied a target country along with eight distractor countries. Training stimuli appeared in text-only format in half of the sessions and text with a color photograph of the country in the other sessions. On each trial, participants selected the target at increasingly longer retention intervals, contingent upon successful recall. Results indicated that the mean proportion of correct trials and longest duration achieved increased across training sessions, confirming the success of the spaced-retrieval intervention. Pictorial illustrations enhanced explicit memory for target country names. Implications of these data for current views on memory remediation in cognitively impaired older adults are discussed.;

Bibtex Citation

@article{Boudreaux_2011, doi = {10.1080/0361073x.2011.568816}, url = {}, year = 2011, month = {apr}, publisher = {Informa {UK} Limited}, volume = {37}, number = {3}, pages = {293--309}, author = {Emily O. Boudreaux and Katie E. Cherry and Emily M. Elliott and Jason L. Hicks}, title = {Effects of Distraction and Pictorial Illustration on Memory for Countries in Older Adults with Probable Alzheimer{textquotesingle}s Disease}, journal = {Experimental Aging Research} }


aged, aged, 80 and over, alzheimer disease, association, attention, diagnosis, female, humans, male, memory shortterm, mental recall, mental status schedule, psychology, psychometrics, retention psychology, statistics & numerical data, verbal learning

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Alzheimer’s Disease

Type of Outcomes


Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

Adult safeguarding and abuse detection/prevention