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Cognitive effects of calligraphy therapy for older people: a randomized controlled trial in Hong Kong


Kwok, Timothy C. Y., Bai, Xue, Kao, Henry S. R., Li, Jessie C. Y., Ho, Florence K. Y.


Clinical Interventions In Aging, Volume: 6, Pages.: 269-273

Year of Publication



Background: This pilot study investigated the effects of calligraphy therapy on cognitive function in older Hong Kong Chinese people with mild cognitive impairment.; Methods: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial was carried out in a sample of 31 adults aged 65 years or older with mild cognitive impairment. They were randomly assigned to receive either intensive calligraphy training led by a trained research assistant for eight weeks (calligraphy group, n = 14) or no calligraphy treatment (control group, n = 17). Participants’ cognitive function was assessed by the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) before and after calligraphy treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and paired samples t-tests were used to analyze the data.; Results: A significant interaction effect of time and intervention was detected [F (1, 29) = 9.11, P = 0.005, η(2) = 0.24]. The calligraphy group was found to have a prominent increase in CMMSE global score, and scores in the cognitive areas of orientation, attention, and calculation after two months (ΔM = 2.36, P < 0.01), whereas their counterparts in the control group experienced a decline in CMMSE score (ΔM = -0.41, P < 0.05).; Conclusion: Calligraphy therapy was effective for enhancing cognitive function in older people with mild cognitive impairment and should be incorporated as part of routine programs in both community and residential care settings.;

Bibtex Citation

@article{Bai_2011, doi = {10.2147/cia.s25395}, url = {}, year = 2011, month = {oct}, publisher = {Dove Medical Press Ltd.}, pages = {269}, author = {Xue Bai and Henry Kao and Timothy Kwok and Ho and Li}, title = {Cognitive effects of calligraphy therapy for older people: a randomized controlled trial in Hong Kong}, journal = {{CIA}} }


aged, aged, 80 and over, calligraphy, calligraphy therapy, chinese elderly, cognitive function, dementia, female, geriatric assessment, handwriting, humans, intelligence tests, male, mental competency, mentally disabled persons, methods, mild cognitive impairment, pilot projects, psychology, psychomotor performance, randomized controlled trial, severity of illness index, therapy, time factors, treatment outcome

Countries of Study

Hong Kong

Types of Dementia

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Types of Study

Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes


Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

Arts and Music Interventions (including Art and Music Therapy)