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Associations of anti-hypertensive treatments with Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and other dementias


Davies, Neil M., Kehoe, Patrick G., Ben-Shlomo, Yoav, Martin, Richard M.


Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Volume: 26, No.: 4, Pages.: 699-708

Year of Publication



We investigated whether angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) are more strongly associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and other dementias, than other anti-hypertensive drugs. We conducted a nested case-control analysis within the UK general practice research database, with prospectively recorded anti-hypertensive prescribing data. We sampled cases aged ≥60 years and diagnosed between 1997-2008 (5,797 with AD, 2,186 with VaD, 1,214 with unspecified/other dementia) which were matched to up to four controls by age, general practice and gender. We computed odds-ratios and dose response effects for AD, vascular and unspecified/other dementia, comparing those prescribed ARBs or ACE-Is for at least six months with patients prescribed other anti-hypertensives. We controlled for matching factors, co-morbidities, smoking status, an area measure of socioeconomic status, consultation rate and blood pressure and accounted for reverse causality by introducing time-lags of up to eight years prior to diagnosis/index date. Patients diagnosed with AD, vascular and unspecified/other dementia had fewer prescriptions for ARBs and ACE-Is. Inverse associations with AD were strongest for ARBs (odds-ratio; 0.47, 95%CI, 0.37-0.58) compared with ACE-Is (odds-ratio; 0.76, 95%CI, 0.69-0.84) (pdifference < 0.001). Associations of ARBs with AD were stronger than for vascular dementia (pdifference = 0.01) and unspecified/other dementia (pdifference = 0.23). There were inverse dose-response relationships between ARBs and ACE-Is with AD (both ptrend < 0.01). The inverse association of ACE-Is with AD diminished when using longer time lags but the ARB-AD association persisted. Patients with AD were around half as likely to be prescribed ARBs. Further randomized controlled trial evidence is required to rigorously test these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)


alzheimer’s disease, angiotensin, antihypertensive, drug therapy, drugs, enzyme inhibitors, vascular dementia

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia (general / unspecified), Vascular Dementia

Types of Study

Correlation Study (also known as Ecological Study)

Type of Interventions

Risk Factor Modification

Risk Factor Modifications

At risk population