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A simple cognitive test which detects early decline in cognitive function


Yamamoto, Yasuo, Sakaguchi, Ryuichi, Nagata, Hirokazu


Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal Of Geriatrics, Volume: 47, No.: 3, Pages.: 235-242

Year of Publication



Aim: The aim of this study was to examine our new cognitive test which detects early decline in cognitive function.; Methods: Our newly developed Simple Cognitive test (SC-test) takes 3 minutes, during which participants choose the figures in which both the shape and color are different from the figure on the left end of each line. The top score is 50 points. In a normal control study, the SC-test was given to 271 nursing home staff. We gave the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and SC-test, to 114 participants in day-rehabilitation (Day group).; Results: For the normal candidates, most young participants obtained nearly full marks. The average mark of those aged 18 to 29 was 48.1 (+/-3.40) points, while that for those 60 to 69 was 36.2 (+/-11.6) points. The average age of the Day group was 80.2 (+/-6.2), the MMSE average score was 23.8 (+/-4.3) points, the average FAB score was 11.2 (+/-3.5) points and the average on the SC-test was 13.1 (+/-11.5) points. The correlation coefficient between the SC-test and MMSE was r=0.569 (p=4.17×10(-11)), while that of the FAB was r=0.664 (p=6.661×10(-16)). In the 3-dimensional scatter chart of the three tests, despite near full marks on MMSE, people who obtained low scores on the FAB test also had low scores on the SC-test.; Conclusions: The SC-test is very simple to use, and it has very high sensitivity and specificity regarding early decline in cognitive function, especially frontal lobe function.;


adolescent, adult, aged, 80 and over, cognition, cognition disorders, dementia, diagnosis, humans, intelligence tests, neuropsychological tests, sensitivity and specificity

Countries of Study


Types of Dementia

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Types of Study

Non randomised controlled trial


Nursing Homes

Type of Interventions

Diagnostic Target Identification

Diagnostic Targets

Cognition testing (inc. task driven tests such as clock drawing)