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Physical activity and cognitive functioning in the oldest old: Within- and between-person cognitive activity and psychosocial mediators


Robitaille, Annie, Muniz, Graciela, Lindwall, Magnus, Piccinin, Andrea M., Hoffman, Lesa, Johansson, Boo, Hofer, Scott M.


European Journal of Ageing, Volume: 11, No.: 4, Pages.: 333-347

Year of Publication



The current study examines the role of social contact intensity, cognitive activity, and depressive symptoms as within- and between-person mediators for the relationships between physical activity and cognitive functioning. All three types of mediators were considered simultaneously using multilevel structural equations modeling with longitudinal data. The sample consisted of 470 adults ranging from 79.37 to 97.92 years of age (M = 83.4; SD = 3.2) at the first occasion. Between-person differences in cognitive activity mediated the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning, such that individuals who participated in more physical activities, on average, engaged in more cognitive activities and, in turn, showed better cognitive functioning. Mediation of between-person associations between physical activity and memory through social contact intensity was also significant. At the within-person level, only cognitive activity mediated the relationship between physical activity and change in cognition; however, the indirect effect was small. Depressive symptomatology was not found to significantly mediate within- or between-person effects on cognitive change. Our findings highlight the implications of physical activity participation for the prevention of cognitive decline and the importance of meditational processes at the between-person level. Physical activity can provide older adults with an avenue to make new friendships and engage in more cognitive activities which, in turn, attenuates cognitive decline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Bibtex Citation

@article{Robitaille_2014, doi = {10.1007/s10433-014-0314-z}, url = {}, year = 2014, month = {apr}, publisher = {Springer Science $mathplus$ Business Media}, volume = {11}, number = {4}, pages = {333--347}, author = {Annie Robitaille and Graciela Muniz and Magnus Lindwall and Andrea M. Piccinin and Lesa Hoffman and Boo Johansson and Scott M. Hofer}, title = {Physical activity and cognitive functioning in the oldest old: within- and between-person cognitive activity and psychosocial mediators}, journal = {Eur J Ageing} }


aging, cognitive activity, cognitive decline, cognitive impairment, contact, depression, intensity, major depression, mediation, multilevel structural equation modeling, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social, social support, structural equation modeling

Countries of Study


Type of Outcomes

Cognition, Depression and Anxiety, Other



Type of Interventions

Risk Factor Modification

Risk Factor Modifications

General population health promotion