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Effectiveness of cognitive training in Chinese older people with subjective cognitive complaints: a randomized placebo-controlled trial


Kwok, Timothy CY, Bai, Xue, Li, Jessie CY, Ho, Florence KY, Lee, Tatia MC


International Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry, Volume: 28, No.: 2, Pages.: 208-215

Year of Publication



Objective: This study examines the short-term and long-term effects of a cognitive training (CT) program in enhancing cognitive function of older people with subjective memory complaints.; Methods: A single-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out in a sample of 223 older adults aged 65 years or above with subjective memory complaints in Hong Kong. They were randomly assigned to either receive CT (intervention group, N = 111) or attend health-related educational lectures only (control group, N = 112). Participants’ cognitive abilities were assessed by the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale at baseline, immediately after the training, and nine months after the training.; Results: Significant interaction effect of CT and education was detected on participants’ CT gains at both T2 (F(2, 200) = 6.329, p = 0.002, η(2)  = 0.060) and T3 (F(2, 189) = 3.294, p = 0.039, η(2)  = 0.034).; Conclusions: Cognitive training was effective in enhancing the overall cognitive functioning of less educated older adults with subjective memory complaints. The positive effect was durable for at least nine months in two cognitive areas, namely conceptualization and memory.; Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bibtex Citation

@article{Kwok_2012, doi = {10.1002/gps.3812}, url = {}, year = 2012, month = {apr}, publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell}, volume = {28}, number = {2}, pages = {208--215}, author = {Timothy CY Kwok and Xue Bai and Jessie CY Li and Florence KY Ho and Tatia MC Lee}, title = {Effectiveness of cognitive training in Chinese older people with subjective cognitive complaints: a randomized placebo-controlled trial}, journal = {Int J Geriatr Psychiatry} }


aged, aged, 80 and over, analysis of variance, asian continental ancestry group, china, cognition disorders, cognitive therapy, female, humans, male, memory disorders, psychiatric status rating scales, psychology, standards, therapy

Countries of Study

Hong Kong

Types of Dementia

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Types of Study

Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes


Type of Interventions

Non-pharmacological Treatment

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

Adult safeguarding and abuse detection/prevention