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A 1-year randomized controlled trial comparing mind body exercise (Tai Chi) with stretching and toning exercise on cognitive function in older Chinese adults at risk of cognitive decline


Lam, Linda C. W., Chau, Rachel C. M., Wong, Billy M. L., Fung, Ada W. T., Tam, Cindy W. C., Leung, Grace T. Y., Kwok, Timothy C. Y., Leung, Tony Y. S., Ng, Sammy P., Chan, Wai M.


Journal Of The American Medical Directors Association, Volume: 13, No.: 6, Pages.: 568.e15-20

Year of Publication



Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of Chinese-style mind-body exercise (24 forms simplified Tai Chi) versus stretching and toning exercise in the maintenance of cognitive abilities in Chinese elders at risk of cognitive decline.; Design: A 1-year single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial.; Settings: Community centers and residential homes for elders in Hong Kong.; Participants: A total of 389 subjects at risk of cognitive decline (Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR 0.5 or amnestic-MCI) participated in an exercise intervention program.; Intervention: A total of 171 subjects were trained with Tai Chi (Intervention [I]) and 218 were trained with stretching and toning exercise (Control [C]).; Methods: Cognitive and functional performance were assessed at the baseline, and at 5, 9, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using multilevel mixed models. Primary outcomes included progression to clinical dementia as diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria, and change of cognitive and functional scores. Secondary outcomes included postural balance measured by the Berg Balance Scale neuropsychiatric and mood symptoms measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia.; Results: At 1 year, 92 (54%) and 169 (78%) participants of the I and C groups completed the intervention. Multilevel logistic regression with completers-only analyses controlled for baseline differences in education revealed that the I group had a trend for lower risk of developing dementia at 1 year (odds ratio 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.92, P = .04). The I group had better preservation of CDR sum of boxes scores than the C group in both intention-to-treat (P = .04) and completers-only analyses (P = .004). In completers-only analyses, the I group had greater improvement in delay recall (P = .05) and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia scores (P = .02).; Conclusion: Regular exercise, especially mind-body exercise with integrated cognitive and motor coordination, may help with preservation of global ability in elders at risk of cognitive decline; however, logistics to promote long-term practice and optimize adherence needs to be revisited.; Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Bibtex Citation

@article{Lam_2012, doi = {10.1016/j.jamda.2012.03.008}, url = {}, year = 2012, month = {jul}, publisher = {Elsevier {BV}}, volume = {13}, number = {6}, pages = {568.e15--568.e20}, author = {Linda C.W. Lam and Rachel C.M. Chau and Billy M.L. Wong and Ada W.T. Fung and Cindy W.C. Tam and Grace T.Y. Leung and Timothy C.Y. Kwok and Tony Y.S. Leung and Sammy P. Ng and Wai M. Chan}, title = {A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Mind Body Exercise (Tai Chi) With Stretching and Toning Exercise on Cognitive Function in Older Chinese Adults at Risk of Cognitive Decline}, journal = {Journal of the American Medical Directors Association} }


aged, at, chi, cognition, cognition disorders, cognitive, decline, disease progression, female, geriatric assessment, hong kong, humans, intervention studies, male, muscle stretching exercises, of, older, people, physiology, physiopathology, poisson distribution, prevention & control, risk, risk assessment, tai, tai ji, treatment outcome

Countries of Study

Hong Kong

Types of Study

Randomised Controlled Trial

Type of Outcomes

Behaviour, Cognition, Depression and Anxiety


Community, Long Term Residential Care without medically trained staff

Type of Interventions

Risk Factor Modification

Risk Factor Modifications

At risk population

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

Complementary therapies, Exercise (inc. dancing)